Snusforumet’s snus science database includes a collection of studies and research on snus and snus policy from a variety of sources and perspectives. The documents are in Swedish, English, and Norwegian.

Snus is the dominant tobacco product in Sweden and its health effects are carefully documented in scientific research. The research finds that Swedish snus is one of the least-harmful tobacco products when it comes to people’s health. The negative health effects of tobacco use in Sweden are therefore significantly lower than comparable countries, with fewer tobacco-related diseases and low smoking-related mortality, especially among men.

You can also find more information about snus at the Snus Commission, an independent commission that produces reports on issues related to Swedish snus. The commission is funded by the Association of Swedish Snus Manufacturers.

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Year Author Title Source
2003 Rodu, B. et al. Evolving patterns of tobacco use in northern Sweden Journal of Internal Medicine 2003; 253: 660–665
2003 Foulds, J., Ramstrom, L., Burke, M., Fagerström K. Effect of smokeless tobacco (snus) on smoking and public health in Sweden Tobacco Control. 12:349-359
2007 Tobacco Advisory Group of the Royal College of Physicians Harm reduction in nicotine addiction Royal College of Physicians
2008 World Health Organization The Scientific Basis of Tobacco Product Regulation World Health Organization
2008 Tobacco Advisory Group of the Royal College of Physicians Ending tobacco smoking in Britain Royal College of Physicians of London
2008 Furberg, H. et al. Snus use and other correlates of smoking cessation in the Swedish Twin Registry Psychological Medicine 38(9):1299-308
2008 Britton, John och Edwards, Richard Tobacco smoking, harm reduction, and nicotine product regulation Viewpoint, vol 371 February 2
2009 World Health Organization Toxicological evaluation of certain residues of veterinary drugs in food World Health Organization
2009 Vedøy, Tord Finne och Skretting, Astrid Ungdom og rusmidler - Resultater fra spørreskjemaundersøkelser 1968 – 2008 SIRUS-Rapport nr. 5/2009
2009 Rodu, B., Jansson, J-H., och Eliasson, M. The low prevalence of smoking in the Northern Sweden MONICA study, 2009 Scandinavian Journal of Public Health; 0: 1–4
2009 Lund, Karl Erik A tobacco-free society or harm reduction? Which objective is best for the remaining smokers in Scandinavia? SIRUS Report No. 5/2009
2009 Hedblad, Bo och Janzon, Ellis Swedish snuff and incidence of cardiovascular disease: A population-based cohort study BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, 9:21
2009 Anteckningar från möte om snus på EU:s inre marknad. 2009-05-19 Bandupptagning från mötet
2010 Swedish Match Swedish Snus and Health Swedish Match
2010 Swedish Match Swedish snus and the internal market Swedish Match
2010 Swedish Match What is Swedish snus? Swedish Match
2010 Karl E. Lund , Janne Scheffels, & Ann McNeill The use of snus for quitting smoking compared to medicinal products Nicotine & Tobacco Research 12(8):817-22
2011 Swedish Match Snus and Sweden data and analysis 2010-11 Swedish Match
2011 Socialstyrelsen Nationella riktlinjer för sjukdomsförebyggande metoder 2011 - Tobaksbruk, riskbruk av alkohol, otillräcklig fysisk aktivitet och ohälsosamma matvanor Socialstyrelsen
2011 Socialstyrelsen Nationella riktlinjer för sjukdomsförebyggande metoder 2011 - Vetenskapligt underlag Socialstyrelsen
2011 Rutqvist, Lars E. et al. Swedish snus and the GothiaTek® standard Harm Reduction Journal, 8:11
2011 Ramström, Lars M. och Wikmans, Tom Revisiting Harm Reduction - An Update of Pros and Cons Research Group for Societal and Information Studies (FSI)
2011 Nilsson, Robert The molecular basis for induction of human cancers by tobacco specific nitrosamines Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 2011 Jul;60(2):268-80
2011 Malvezzi, M. et al. European cancer mortality predictions for the year 2011 Annals of Oncology, 2011 Apr;22(4):947-56
2011 Lund, Karl Erik Kan Norge bli røykfritt? Tidsskrift for Den norske Legeforening nr. 6, 2011; 131: 563–4
2011 Lee, Peter N. Summary of the epidemiological evidence relating snus to health Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 59, 197–214
2011 Le Houezec, Jacques et al Tobacco, nicotine and harm reduction Drug and Alcohol Review 30, 119–123
2011 Bertuccio, P. et al. Cigar and pipe smoking, smokeless tobacco use and pancreatic cancer: an analysis from the International Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4) Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology.
2012 Scheffels et al. Contrasting snus and NRT as methods to quit smoking. an observational study Harm Reduction Journal 2012, 9:10
2012 Molander Gregory, Karin Novel tobacco products - snus Folkhälsoinstitutet
2012 McNeill Ann och Munafò, Marcus R Reducing harm from tobacco use Journal of Psychopharmacology, Volume: 27 issue: 1, page(s): 13-18
2012 Lund, Karl Erik Association between willingness to use snus to quit smoking and perception of relative risk between snus and cigarettes Nicotine & Tobacco Research. Vol. 14, Nr 10; 1221–1228
2012 Hortlund, Per och Gabrielsson, Elin Samhällsekonomiska besparingar av snus som skadereducerare i Sverige 1990-2011 HUI Research
2012 Europeiska kommissionen Special Eurobarometer 385 - Attitudes of Europeans Towards Tobacco Europeiska kommissionen
2013 Lund, Karl Erik och McNeill, Ann Patterns of Dual Use of Snus and Cigarettes in a Mature Snus Market Nicotine & Tobacco Research, Volume 15, Number 3
2013 Lund, Karl Erik Tobacco harm reduction in the real world: has the availability of snus in Norway increased smoking cessation? Drugs and alcohol today, VOL. 13 NO. 2 2013, pp. 92-101
2014 Swedish Match Vissa Skattefrågor inför budgetproposition 2015 (Tobak) Swedish Match
2014 Ramström, L How many deaths could conceivably have been averted in the EU if there had not been a ban on snus? Institute for Tobacco Studies
2014 Ramström L, Wikmans T. Mortality attributable to tobacco among men in Sweden and other European countries: an analysis of data in a WHO report Tob. Induc. Dis. 2014;12(1):14
2014 MarketLine Tobacco in Sweden MarketLine
2014 Hortlund, Per och Olsson, Camilla Samhällsekonomiskt optimala punktskatter på snus HUI Research
2014 Framework Convention Alliance Winning Approaches to Tobacco Taxation: Lessons from the implementation of Article 6 of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) Framework Convention Alliance
2014 Folkehelseinstituttet Helserisiko ved bruk av snus (på Norska) Folkehelseinstituttet (Norge)
2015 Statskontoret Utvärdering av regeringens strategi för ANDT Statskontoret
2015 Regeringen Regeringens åtgärdsprogram för alkohol-, narkotika-, dopnings- och tobakspolitiken 2015 Regeringen
2015 Novus/Svenska Snustillverkarföreningen EU-reglering av snusförsäljning Novus/Svenska Snustillverkarföreningen
2015 Maki, Jennifer The incentives created by a harm reduction approach to smoking cessation: Snus and smoking in Sweden and Finland International Journal of Drug Policy. 2015 Jun; 26(6):569-74
2015 Livsmedelsverket Förslag till ändring i Livsmedelsverkets föreskrifter (LIVSFS 2012:6) om snus och tuggtobak Livsmedelsverket
2016 Skatteutskottet Punktskattehöjningar på alkohol- och tobaksprodukter – skatteeffekter och påverkan på den oregistrerade anskaffningen av dessa produkter Riksdag
2016 Ramström, L.; Borland, R.; Wikmans, T. Patterns of Smoking and Snus Use in Sweden: Implications for Public Health Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 1110
2016 Hatsukami DK, Severson H, Anderson A, et al Randomised clinical trial of snus versus medicinal nicotine among smokers interested in product switching Tobacco Control 2016;25:267-274.
2017 Snuskommissionen Sveket mot rökarna: En rapport om den svenska desinformationen Snuskommissionen
2017 Snuskommissionen Så många liv kan snuset rädda: En studie om snuset och den tobaksrelaterade dödligheten i EU Snuskommissionen
2017 The Snus Commission Snus saves lives: A study of snus and tobacco-related mortality in the EU The Snus Commission
2017 GBD 2016 Risk Factors Collaborators Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016 Lancet 2017; 390: 1345–422
2017 Araghi, M. et al. Smokeless tobacco (snus) use and colorectal cancer incidence and survival: Results from nine pooled cohorts Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 45(8), pp. 741–748
2018 Ramström, L Sweden's pathway to Europe's lowest level of tobacco-related mortality Tob. Induc. Dis. 2018;16(Suppl 1):A607
2019 Ramboll/Swedish Match Review and Update of the Literature on Use Behavior and Risk Perceptions Related to Swedish Snus Ramboll/Swedish Match
2019 Ramboll/Swedish Match Systematic Review of and Update of the Literature on the Health Effects of Snus Ramboll/Swedish Match
2019 Ramboll/Swedish Match The Impact of Flavoring on Tobacco/Nicotine Product Initiation and Attractiveness Ramboll/Swedish Match
2020 Wackowski, O., O’Connor, R., Pearson, J. Smokers’ exposure to perceived modified risk claims for e-cigarettes, snus and smokeless tobacco in the United States Nicotine & Tobacco Research
2020 Vedoy, T.F., Lund, K.E. The greater use of flavoured snus among ever-smokers versus never-smokers in Norway Harm Reduct J 17, 76 (2020)
2020 Steinberg, M.B., Bover Manderski, M.T., Wackowski, O.A. et al. Nicotine Risk Misperception Among US Physicians J Gen Intern Med (2020)
2020 Snuskommissionen Snusets hälsoeffekter Snuskommissionen
2020 Byhamre, M. & Araghi, M. et al. Swedish snus use is associated with mortality: a pooled analysis of eight prospective studies International Journal of Epidemiology, 2020, 2041–2050
2020 Araghi, Marzieh, et al. No association between moist oral snuff (snus) use and oral cancer: pooled analysis of nine prospective observational studies Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, May 2020
2020 Murkett R, Rugh M and Ding B. Nicotine products relative risk assessment: a systematic review and meta-analysis F1000Research 2020, 9:1225
2019 Clarke, E., Thompson, K., Weaver, S. et al. Snus: a compelling harm reduction alternative to cigarettes Harm Reduct J 16, 62 (2019)
2021 Titova, O.E., Baron, J.A., Michaëlsson, K. et al. Swedish snuff (snus) and risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality: prospective cohort study of middle-aged and older individuals. BMC Med 19, 111 (2021).
2014 Hansson, J., et al. Snus (Swedish smokeless tobacco) use and risk of stroke: pooled analyses of incidence and survival Journal of Internal Medicine, 276(1), 87-95 (2014)
2013 Hedström AK, Hillert J, Olsson T, Alfredsson L. Nicotine might have a protective effect in the etiology of multiple sclerosis Mult Scler. 2013 Jul;19(8):1009-13
2021 David Azzopardi, Chuan Liu & James Murphy Chemical characterization of tobacco-free “modern” oral nicotine pouches and their position on the toxicant and risk continuums Drug and Chemical Toxicology (2021)
2016 Royal College of Physicians Nicotine without smoke Tobacco harm reduction London: RCP, 2016.
2021 David J. K. Balfour, et al. Balancing Consideration of the Risks and Benefits of E-Cigarettes American Journal of Public Health , no. (): pp. e1-e12
2014 Nutt D, J, Phillips L, D, Balfour D, Curran H, V, Dockrell M, Foulds J, Fagerstrom K, Letlape K, Milton A, Polosa R, Ramsey J, Sweanor D Estimating the Harms of Nicotine-Containing Products Using the MCDA Approach Eur Addict Res 2014;20:218–225
2017 Araghi M, Rosaria Galanti M, Lundberg M, Lager A, Engström G, Alfredsson L, Knutsson A, Norberg M, Sund M, Wennberg P, Trolle Lagerros Y, Bellocco R, Pedersen NL, Östergren PO, Magnusson C. Use of moist oral snuff (snus) and pancreatic cancer: Pooled analysis of nine prospective observational studies Int J Cancer . 2017 Aug 15;141(4):687-693
2022 Lund M, and Lund I Smoking cessation aids and strategies: a population-based survey of former and current: smokers in Norway BMC Public Health (2022) 22:631
2018 Abrams DB, Glasser AM, Pearson JL, Villanti AC, Collins LK, Niaura RS Harm Minimization and Tobacco Control: Reframing Societal Views of Nicotine Use to Rapidly Save Lives. Annu Rev Public Health. 2018 Apr 1;39:193-213.
2021 Bundesinstitut für Risikobewertung (BfR) Health assessment of nicotine pouches Report
2020 Plurphanswat, N., et al Initial Information on a Novel Nicotine Product The American Journal on Addictions, 2020. 29(4): p. 279-286.
1998 Lewin F, Norell SE, Johansson H, Gustavsson P, Wennerberg J, Biörklund A, Rutqvist LE Smoking tobacco, oral snuff and alcohol in the etiology of carcinoma of the head and neck Cancer. 1998 Apr 1;82(7):1367-75
1994 Hansson LE, Baron J, Nyrén O, Bergström R, Wolk A, Adami HO Tobacco, alcohol and the risk of gastric cancer. A population-based case-control study in Sweden Int J Cancer. 1994 Apr 1;57(1):26-31
2023 Galanti, M.R., Andersson, F., Caspersen, I.H. et al. Current tobacco use and COVID-19 diagnoses in a cohort of adult clients of public dental clinics in Sweden Sci Rep 13, 1204 (2023)
2023 Lund, I & Lund, M Quit smoking: methods and outcomes for Norwegian adults Discover Social Science & Health, #3, Article number: 12 (2023)